RAO JODHA OF MANDORE
Rao Jodha was a Rajput ruler of Mandore click more details
The Chittorgarh fort in Rajasthan was the site of several battles between the Rajputs and the Islamic invaders.
Muslims started attacking India within a few decades of the birth of Islam. For a few hundred years they had no success.Mohammed Bin Qasim was able to defeat Dahir in Sindh but was routed by Bappa Rawal. Qasim attacked Chittore, which was ruled by Mori Rajputs, via Mathura. Bappa, of guhilote dynasty, was a commander in Mori army and so was Dahir's son. Bappa defeated and pursued Bin Qasim through Saurashtra and back to Sindh. After this resounding defeat of the caliphate at the hands of Bappa in 712 A.D., Sindh mulsims paid tribute to Hindu rajputs. (note Muslim historians rarely recorded the defeats of their kings).
Vidyadhar Chandela was a rajput king of Bundelkhand (Central India, modern Madhya Pradesh) and ruled from his capitalKalinjar from 1017 A.D. - 1035 A.D. Mahmud of Ghazni started his attacks on India at the close of 10th century A.D. Twice Mahmud tried to subjugate the Chandela Rajput, Vidydhar. Ibn-ul-Asir writes in Kamil-ut-Twarikh (Vol IX, Page 115) that Mahmud marched against India in A.H 409 (1018-19 A.D) to protect his territories against the threatened attack of Bida (the Arabic phonetic equivalent of Vidya). Asir further says:This king was the greatest of the rulers of India in territory; he had the largest armies; and his country was named
After defeating Mahmud of Ghazni twice, Vidyadhar Chandela, had the Kandariya Mahadev temple built at Khajurao in the same complex where ancestors of his family had constructed temples.
Kandariya Mahadev Temple built by Vidydhar Chandela after defeating Mahmud of Ghazni
Vidyadhar ruled for another decade after defeating Mahmud of Ghazni.
Prithviraj Chauhan was born at Ajaymeru (Ajmer) in 1166 A.D. His father was Someshwar Chauhan and mother Karpuri Devi, a Kalachuri (Chedi) princess, daughter of Achalaraja of Tripuri.
Prithviraj allowed him to go despite his generals asking him not to do so.
Prithviraj Chauhan lived at Taragarh fort which was also known as Ajaymeru after which the town of Ajmer got its name.
Following year Ghori came again. Prithviraj advanced with his army and sent a letter to Ghori. In this letter Ghori was asked to return as he had been defeated the previous year and was spared his life. Ghori replied that he was in India on the orders of his brother, Ghiasuddin, and that he could only retreat after he got a word from his brother.
Hammir Dev Chauhan
Ranthambore fort of Hada Chauhan dynasty
Marshy Battle Field below Ranthambore Fort.
Hammir was very suspicious but he heeded to his councilors who told him that sword is not always the best recourse. Ratipal and Ranmal, who were close confidants of Hammir, were sent to the Khilji camp. Ranmal's father was hung by Hammir for treachery and his property was confiscated. Ranmal earned the trust of Hammir by being brave in battles that Hammirfought but perfidy was in his blood. Khilji bribed these two generals of
Hammir's army and consequently
Cenotaph of Hammir Dev Chauhan at Ranthambore Fort.
Rawal Ratan Singh, Gora, Badal
Palace of Maharani Padmini
Rani Padmini, that if he is allowed a glimpse of Rani he would leave. By this time the situation inside the fort was getting bad. Rawal discussed this with his advisers and they agreed that they can show Padmini's face in a mirror to the sultan.
Battle Field below Chittor Fort.
Gora told her not to worry and that he would go and bring back Rawal Ratan Singh. Padmini's nephew Badal who was just sixteen also assured her. A message was sent from the fort to Khilji that Padmini would come with 700 of her
Jag Niwas, the summer abode of the Ranas of Mewar, in Udaipur Rajasthan
After Ratan Singh's death his successor Laxman Singh tried to capture Chittor and fought a battle with Tughlaq near Chittor. He died along with his son Ari. His second son Ajay was severely wounded but was taken away from the battlefield by other soldiers and survived. Ajay was not a powerful ruler and his sons were likewise. Ajay knew that Ari had a son Hammir and he called Hammir to come to him
Maharana Kumbha was the eldest son of Rana Mokal by his
Parmar Queen, Sobhagya Devi, daughter of Jaitmal Sankhla, and thus united in himself the fine qualities of these two royal races of India, the culture of one and the chivalry of the other. Maharana Kumbha ascended the throne of
Mewar in A.D. 1433 in the renowned fortress of Chittor, and ruled till A.D. 1488, a period of nearly 35 years, which was one of the most prosperous and important in the history of Mewar.
Kumbhalgarh fort built by Maharana Kumbha. Perimeter wall is 20 miles long. Six horses could ride simultaneously on the fort ramparts.
The capture of Nagor in A.D. 1435 by Maharana Kumbha brought Sultan Qutbud-din of Gujarat into the field against him. With the Sultan of Malwa, the Maharana had come into collision in the early part of his reign. These two kingdoms, the most powerful Mussalman principalities in India at the time were defeated singly by the Maharana.
Vijay Sthamb (Victory Tower) built by
There are many inscriptions on the Stambh from the time of Maharana Kumbha. (R.Nath in his book Chittorgarh Kirti Stambha of Maharana Kumbha (The Idea and the Form) (1440-1460 A.D)
ISBN 8170173582 has translated these inscriptions on Page 161 of this book):
In Kumbha's lineage was Rana Sangram Singh or Sanga. Ibrahim Lodi, ruler of Delhi, in his expansionary plans to south of Delhi attacked Gwalior and was defeated by Man Singh Tomar but being a Hindu Kshatriya, Man Singh out of magnanimity let Ibrahim go back to Delhi. Lodhi also attacked Rajputana multiple times and Rana Sanga defeated his every attack. Man Singh's descendants fought at Haldighati along with Maharana Pratap against Akbar and showed exemplary bravery.
Chittorgarhfort in Rajasthan was the home of Sisodiya clan of Rajputs and was also the site of several battles between the Rajputs and the Islamic invaders.
Babur had treachery all along in his heart and he won Silhadi by promising him an independent kingdom (Silhadi eventually became ruler of Raisen, just east of Bhopal). Silhadi came back and reported that Babur does not want peace and he wants to fight. Fight started at Khanua in March 1527 A.D. and Babur's army was being knocked out of the field and victory was certain for Sanga. At this juncture Silhadi, who led the herole i.e the vanguard (the most important piece of the formation is herole or van because this force delivers the knock out punch), and his army just left the field and this tilted the war in favor of Babur and he won.
Rao Maldeo Rathore
In reality there was no treachery. Later when Maldeo's generals Kumpa (his progeny are Kumpawat Rathores) and Jaita (his progeny are Jaitawat Rathores) found out what happened they did not loose cool and decided they would not leave the field even though they just had 20 thousand men and had to face 60 thousand Pathans of Sher Shah.
Maharani Durgavati was a Chandel rajputani. She was born at the Kalinjar fort, Banda, Uttar Pradesh. Chandel rajputs were the builders of the beautiful city of
Khajurao which had 85 magnificient temples of which 22 still survive.
Khajurao Temples were built by Chandel Rajputs.
She inherited the Gond Kingdom after her husband, Dalpat Shah, died in 1550 A.D. Her son, Bir Narayan was an infant and Rani Durgavati ruled the kingdom of Gond. Baj Bhadur after ascending the throne of Malwa in 1556 A.D., attacked the Gond kingdom but his army was routed. His defeat was so decisive that he never dared attack Rani Durgavati's kingdom ever again.
Kalinjar fort, Banda, Uttar Pradesh.
Next morning (24th June, 1564) the battle started again. The young Bir Narayan pushed back Mughals thrice but was injured fighting and taken away from the battlefield.
was the eldest son of Maharana Udai Singh and a grandson of Maharana Sanga. He was born on May 9, 1540 at KumbhalGarh and ascended the throne of Mewar as its 54th ruler on February 28th, 1572.
Udai Palace at Udaipur (city founded by Maharana Udai Singh).
So there remained just the house of Mewar the sole bearer of Rajput pride in the face of immense opposition from Mughals as well as other rajputs who had sold there souls essentially to Mughals by giving there daughters. MaharanaPratap the
It is said that somebody told Akbar that Pratap wanted to accept Akbar as the king. Akbar was very happy to hear this. One of
Akbar's general was Prithviraj
Above the din of battle, he heard a familiar war cry, and spun round in his saddle. Man Singh was standing in his elephant's howdah, trying to encourage his men to stem the rout by the Mewar warriors. Pratap spurred his steed to a determined gallop towards Man Singh. Lances, swords or arrows could not stop his fury. He cut his way through to the Mughal general. Chetak skidded to a halt, throwing up dust, but collided with the elephant's plate armour. He reared up against the huge beast, his forelegs glancing off its tusks. Man Singh was partly obscured by his mahout, but Pratap heaved his lance at the howdah. The weapon passed through the driver's body, killing him instantly, and smashed against the howdah's metal plates. Man Singh had disappeared. Thinking he had killed Man Singh, Pratap let out a triumphal cry of revenge. The uncontrolled elephant swung around in panic. The broadsword attached to its trunk slashed through the tendons of one of Chetak's hind legs.
Chetak Rearing Up on Man Singh's elephant
Chetak breathing his last in Pratap's arms
Waving the Sun-God banner, Jhala rallied his men to meet the enemy's counter-attack, as the remainder of the Mewar army disappeared into the cover of the hills. Bringing up the rear, Pratap stopped upon an outcrop of rock. He turned to look back at the swirling dust haze that all but hid the horrendous spectacle of the battleground. Through it came the tumult of shots, the clashing swords, the cries of victory and death. For a few moments, he was able to follow the progress of his crimson banner. Then it, too, fell. An attendant came back and took Pratap's bridle. "We tarry too long, Highness." They continued on. Chetak was now limping badly. Pratap, too, was now faint from loss of blood; he had sustained seven severe wounds from musket, sword and lance.
Pratap was pursued by two Mughal horsemen but was saved by his brother, Shakti Singh. However, having carried his master to safety, Chetak died. Pratap joined the remainder of his men, recovered from his wounds, then continued his guerilla resistance. Despite temporary victory for the Mughals, the battle of Haldighati is significant for the tenacity displayed by the Rajputs, allied with the Bhils, and the art of defensive mountain warfare which Maharana Pratap Singh perfected and which his successors were proud, and wise, to use.
Maharajah Jaswant Singh
Umaid Bhavan Palace is the abode of
Ujjain. Jaswant could have attacked
Jaswant Thada:Chatri (Cenotaph) of Maharajah Jaswant Singh
Finally the unequal contest ended and Aurangzeb named the place of victory Fatehabad. In this battle
Durga Das Rathorechanged four horses and lost about half a dozen swords (they broke due to intense fighting) and he finally fell down half dead. Maharajah ordered him to be carried away. After his wounds healed he promptly rejoined Maharaja's army.
further writes in Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan:
Rajputs, even in the moment of battle, worshipped the rising sun, and they sealed there faith in there blood; and none more liberally than the brave Haras of Kotah and Bundi. . . The annals of no nation on earth can furnish such an example, as an entire family, six royal brothers of Kotah, stretched on the field, and all but one in death. Of all the deeds of heroism performed on this day, those of Ratan Singh Rathore of Ratlam, by universal consent, are pre-eminent, and are wreathed into immortal rhyme by the bard in the Raso Rao Ratan.
Taragarh Fort at Bundi, the abode of Hada Chauhan Rajputs.
Prithvi Singh was Jaswant Singh's son. It is chronicled in
Marwar khyats that Aurangzeb presented Prithvi Singh a dress which was poisoned. On wearing this dress Prithvi
Aurangzeb tried to kill Jaswant Singh many times. James Tod writes in his Annals and Antiquities:
Mehrangarh Fort and Jaswant Thada. Fort construction was completed during Maharajah Jaswant Singh's reign.
The Rajputs founded several cities of modern-day Rajasthan. The historical city of Jodhpur was founded by the Rathore clan of Rajputs.
Thereby started the 30 year Rajput rebellion against Aurangzeb.
Cenotaph of Durga Das Rathore near Ujjain.
Ajit grew up in the mountains of Mt. Abu.
When these brave men saw that nothing short of the surrender of all that was dear to a
Rajput was intended by the fiend-like spirit of Aurangzeb, their first thought was the preservation of their prince; the next to secure their own honour and that of their late master.
Lakshman Dev was born in
Kashmir in 1670 A.D. He was a Minhas Rajput and lived as an ascetic at Nander on the banks of
Godavari in Maharashtra.
Guru Gobind Singh, the tenth guru of Sikhs, met Lakshman at his hermitage and encouraged him to give up his ascetic way of life and resume the duties of a real Rajput. Guruji gave Lakshman a new name